Kisspeptin plays a role in tumor suppression. In a study where malignant tumor cells were injected into a model system , the system was then tested for genes involved in the injected chromosome 6. KISS1 was discovered to be the only gene expressed in non-metastatic cells and absent in metastatic, metastatic meaning the ability for cancer to spread to unconnected areas. This suggested that there Kisspeptin is an essential regulation factor in whether or not a cell will be metastatic or not. Additional experimentation identified CRSP3 as the exact gene responsible for KISS1 regulation within chromosome 6. In clinical evidence studies, KISS1 and Kisspeptin were found in primary, metastatic tumors, and growing tumors showing decreased levels of KISS1 and Kisspeptin.  In conclusion, kisspeptin plays a large role in tumor suppression . When it is active in cells the tumor stays consolidated and does not spread or grow.
In a study of 40 dogs by Kyles, the short-term mortality rate was evaluated in regards to the presence of caval tumor thrombus. Reportedly, tumor thrombus was seen in 25% of all dogs. Eleven percent of adenocarcinomas had tumor thrombus and 55% of pheochromocytomas had tumor thrombus. As mentioned there was no difference in the perioperative death rate regardless of presence or absence of tumor thrombus. The perioperative death rate was 21% for adenocarcinomas and 18% for pheochromocytomas. Previously, pheochromocytomas patients have a high perioperative mortality rate, but the addition of protocols that include administration of high doses of phenoxybenzamine (as high as mg/kg twice daily) have reduced the death rate.
Our current understanding of adrenal function is still at its infancy at best. It is therefore very difficult for any health professional to have a good grasp of the Adrenal Fatigue condition from a purely pathological and physiological perspective. The number of physicians with true expertise in advanced Adrenal Fatigue is very small. Those who are good in this gain their expertise not from textbooks, but from years of clinical experience. There is no short cut, because text-book cases are few and far between. Because the full recovery cycle can take years to complete in severe cases, practitioners with little experience will find it hard to handle cases other than the most mild and straight forward ones.