Brassinosteroids effects

  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential plant hormones regulating various developmental processes.
  • BRs show structures similar to animal steroidal hormones.
  • Brassinolide is the final product of the BR biosynthetic pathway and the most active BR.
  • BRs are perceived by transmembrane receptor complexes including the receptor BRI1 and co‐receptor BAK1.
  • BRs cannot be transported in a long distant manner.
  • BES1 and BZR1 are the critical downstream transcription factors regulating the expression of thousands of BR response genes.

Salicylic acid is a phenolic phytohormone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis , transpiration , ion uptake and transport. [37] SA is involved in endogenous signaling, mediating in plant defense against pathogens . [38] It plays a role in the resistance to pathogens by inducing the production of pathogenesis-related proteins . [39] It is involved in the systemic acquired resistance in which a pathogenic attack on one part of the plant induces resistance in other parts. The signal can also move to nearby plants by salicylic acid being converted to the volatile ester methyl salicylate . [40]

Brassinosteroids effects

brassinosteroids effects


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