How peptide hormones and steroid hormones affect the metabolism

The term peptide has been used to mean secretagogue peptides and peptide hormones in sports doping matters: secretagogue peptides are classified as Schedule 2 (S2) prohibited substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, and are therefore prohibited for use by professional athletes both in and out of competition. Such secretagogue peptides have been on the WADA prohibited substances list since at least 2008. The Australian Crime Commission cited the alleged misuse of secretagogue peptides in Australian sport including growth hormone releasing peptides CJC-1295 , GHRP-6 , and GHSR (gene) hexarelin. There is ongoing controversy on the legality of using secretagogue peptides in sports. [27]

Peptide , any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins, but smaller. The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of living organisms. Peptide molecules are composed of two or more amino acids joined through amide formation involving the carboxyl group of each amino acid and the amino group of the next. The chemical bond between the carbon and nitrogen atoms of each amide group is called a peptide bond . Some or all of the peptide bonds, which connect the consecutive triplets of atoms in the chain regarded as the backbone of the molecule, can be broken by partial or complete hydrolysis of the compound . This reaction, producing smaller peptides and finally the individual amino acids, is commonly used in studies of the composition and structure of peptides and proteins.

According to the scientific literature, orally consumed peptide hormones won’t pass into the bloodstream in healthy adults, which means they can’t have any desirable effect. This is because they are broken down during digestion into their amino acids. However, some companies market these products as being delivered buccally or sublingually (through the membranes of the cheek inside the mouth or under the tongue). In addition they may be offered as a transdermal patch, skin cream, or even injection. By definition, these “non-oral” products are not dietary supplements. In any case, peptide hormones in dietary supplements and other forms pose a serious health and safety risk; they should be avoided.

Low peptide YY concentrations are associated with an increase in appetite and food intake. Low peptide YY levels are seen in obesity and before the onset of type 2 diabetes and may contribute to weight gain in these conditions. However, low peptide YY concentrations are very unlikely to be the main cause of obesity as the levels decrease after weight gain has started. There has been some research into using peptide YY as a medication for obesity, aiming to decrease the appetite of people who are overweight. This research is still ongoing.

How peptide hormones and steroid hormones affect the metabolism

how peptide hormones and steroid hormones affect the metabolism

Low peptide YY concentrations are associated with an increase in appetite and food intake. Low peptide YY levels are seen in obesity and before the onset of type 2 diabetes and may contribute to weight gain in these conditions. However, low peptide YY concentrations are very unlikely to be the main cause of obesity as the levels decrease after weight gain has started. There has been some research into using peptide YY as a medication for obesity, aiming to decrease the appetite of people who are overweight. This research is still ongoing.

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