Hypogonadism due to steroids

Levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) should be checked at 3, 6, and 12 months. If the patient is truly hypogonadal to begin with, expect a significant rise at the 3-month assessment. Thereafter, the usual criteria apply regarding the possible presence of an underlying malignancy (>4 ng/mL, or rate of increase > ng/mL/2 yr or >2 ng/mL overall). These criteria continue to be revised by our urology colleagues, tending to become more stringent with time. For example, a PSA rise of more than 1 ng/mL/year has been suggested as an early warning guide, and closer surveillance has been recommended, even at rates of to  ng/mL/year. 2 A digital rectal examination should be performed at 3 to 6 months and at 1 year after therapy is initiated. A urologic consultation should be obtained if indicated.

Kraft, S. (.). Signs of high testosterone in women. Retrieved from  http:///content/article/signs-high-testosterone-women

Low testosterone. (2012, March). Retrieved from  http:///diseases-and-conditions/mens-health/low-testosterone

Nigro, N. & Christ-Cain, M. (2012). Testosterone treatment in the aging male: Myth or reality? Swiss Medicine Weekly, 2012(142), w13539. Retrieved from  http:///content/smw-2012-13539/

NIH-supported trials of testosterone therapy in older men report mixed results. (2017, February 21). Retrieved from  https:///news-events/news-releases/nih-supported-trials-testosterone-therapy-older-men-report-mixed-results

Sharma, R., Oni, O. A., Gupta, K., Chen, G., Sharma, M., Dawn, B., … & Barua, R. S. (2015, August 6). Normalization of testosterone level is associated with reduced incidence of myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal, 36(40), 2706-2715. Retrieved from  https:///eurheartj/article/36/40/2706/2293361/Normalization-of-testosterone-level-is-associated

Sinicki, A. (.). What are prohormones? Are they safe? Retrieved from http:///entry/17328/1/What-Are-Prohormones-And-Are-They-

Testosterone and androgens. (2014, January). Retrieved from  http:///hormones-and-health/hormones/testosterone

Tsujimura, A. (2013, August 31). The relationship between testosterone deficiency and men's health.  The World Journal of Men's Health, 31 (2), 126-135. Retrieved from  http:///pmc/articles/PMC3770847/

Walker, W. H. (2010, May 27). Non-classical actions of testosterone and spermatogenesis.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 365 (1546). Retrieved from  http:///pmc/articles/PMC2871922/

Wein, H. (2013, September 23). Understanding how testosterone affects men. Retrieved from  https:///news-events/nih-research-matters/understanding-how-testosterone-affects-men

What is low testosterone (hypogonadism)? (.). Retrieved from  https:///urologic-conditions/low-testosterone-(hypogonadism)

Wong, J. Y. Y., Gold, E. B., Johnson, W. O., & Lee, J. S. (2015, October 2015). Circulating sex hormones and risk of uterine fibroids: Study of women's health across the nation (SWAN).  The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 101 (1), 123-130. Retrieved from  http:///doi//-2935

Ziegenfuss, T. N., Berardi, J. M., & Lowery, L. M. (2002, December). Effects of prohormone supplementation in humans: A review [Abstract]. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 27 (6), 628-646. Retrieved from https:///pubmed/12501001

Vitamins needed to reverse muscle atrophy primarily include Vitamin E and Vitamin D. Vitamin E has antioxidant property and prevents the muscle against oxidative damage and correcting its deficiency can correct muscle atrophy in certain cases. Good source of Vitamin E for muscle atrophy treatment include Wheat germ oil, Sunflower oil, Safflower oil, Almonds, Spinach and lesser amounts are also found in Mangoes, Papayas and Tomatoes. As for Vitamin D, it plays a significant role in muscle build up and maintaining muscle strength and its supplementation in diet can be very helpful in reversing the effects of muscle atrophy. The best sources of vitamin D are Sunlight, Salmon, Tuna, Milk, Cereal, Pork, Eggs, Mushrooms, Beef liver and Ricotta cheese.

Thomas Perls and David J. Handelsman, in a 2015 editorial in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society , say that between the ill-defined nature of the diagnosis and the pressure and advertising from drug companies selling testosterone and human growth hormone, as well as dietary supplement companies selling all kinds of "boosters" for aging men, the condition is overdiagnosed and overtreated . [19] Perls and Handelsman note that in the US, "sales of testosterone increased from $324 million in 2002 to $2 billion in 2012, and the number of testosterone doses prescribed climbed from 100 million in 2007 to half a billion in 2012, not including the additional contributions from compounding pharmacies, Internet, and direct-to-patient clinic sales." [19]

Hypogonadism due to steroids

hypogonadism due to steroids

Thomas Perls and David J. Handelsman, in a 2015 editorial in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society , say that between the ill-defined nature of the diagnosis and the pressure and advertising from drug companies selling testosterone and human growth hormone, as well as dietary supplement companies selling all kinds of "boosters" for aging men, the condition is overdiagnosed and overtreated . [19] Perls and Handelsman note that in the US, "sales of testosterone increased from $324 million in 2002 to $2 billion in 2012, and the number of testosterone doses prescribed climbed from 100 million in 2007 to half a billion in 2012, not including the additional contributions from compounding pharmacies, Internet, and direct-to-patient clinic sales." [19]

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