Dexamethasone, a potent corticosteroid, has been shown to suppress inflammation by inhibiting oedema, fibrin deposition, capillary leakage, and phagocytic migration of the inflammatory response. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a cytokine which is expressed at increased concentrations in the setting of macular oedema. It is a potent promoter of vascular permeability. Corticosteroids have been shown to inhibit the expression of VEGF. Additionally, corticosteroids prevent the release of prostaglandins, some of which have been identified as mediators of cystoid macular oedema.
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