This review describes the isolation from marine organisms of all secosteroids reported in the literature from 1972 to 2004. Secosteroids are highly oxidized metabolites with bond cleavage in the rings of the steroid tetracyclic nucleus. All secosteroids are grouped in accordance with their ring joined to side chain as 5,6-, 9,11-, 9,10- 8,9-, 8,14- and 13,17-secosteroids and the structures and the synthetic works, where available, are reported. Furthermore, this review gives details on the biological activities of the isolated secosteroids (. antiproliferative, antifouling, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, ichthyotoxic and antiviral).
Climate change is already affecting the health of coral ecosystems. Microbial communities—where many new drugs could likely be found—are especially susceptible to these changes, and some are already beginning to decline or migrate.
“An estimated 95 percent of the world’s oceans remain unexplored, so it’s possible that we might lose significant marine organisms without ever knowing they existed in the first place,” explains Stephanie Wear, a marine scientist on the Conservancy’s Global Marine Team. “A devastating loss of biodiversity could mean that fewer species will be around for future medicinal research and biomedical studies .”
By protecting marine environments through the creation of marine protected areas and the development of adaptation strategies , the Conservancy is safeguarding marine biodiversity . People and nature are already benefiting in so many ways from these marine protected areas. Just imagine what medical benefits may still lay undiscovered beneath the sea.
The enzymes for use in the enzyme extract of the subject invention can be obtained from a natural source, ., a marine organism. Other organisms, including other marine organisms such as sponges, sea squirts, algae, bacteria, and the like, can comprise useful enzymes for producing secosteroids from a steroid precursor, or other useful compounds. In addition, these marine organisms can be the source of other useful compounds, including bryostatin (an antileukemic or antimelanoma agent), ectinascidin (antitumor agent), stevensine (anticancer agent), cignatoxin (a seafood toxin), and others. These marine organisms can also be a source of enzymes for production of the useful compounds, whereby the enzymes can be employed in accordance with the subject invention. In a preferred embodiment, the subject enzymes for the extract can be obtained from a gorgonian coral. More preferably, the enzymes can be obtained from a gorgonian of the Pseudopterogorgia genus, ., P. americana.