Patients rarely require drains after adrenal surgery; however, if the surgeon thinks it is necessary, an abdominal drain will be placed. Drains are more often required after open adrenalectomy than after laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Drains are relatively easy to take care of, and the output is recorded on a daily basis. Once the output decreases to a certain level, the drain will be removed. Removal of the drain is not particularly painful. It is more of a strange sensation. In general, the drain will be removed several days after surgery.
Cholesterol - Cholesterol is a major precursor of cholesterol ester, bile acids, and steroid hormones and is a component of plasma membranes. It is a necessary component of all cell membranes. It is the precursor to all steroid hormone (including estrogen , testosterone , cortisol , and vitamin D ). It is the leading organic molecule in the brain and is needed for brain function. However, too much cholesterol in the bloodstream can be unhealthy, it builds up in the artery wall and can lead to the signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease.
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.