Synergistic interaction between hesperidin , a natural flavonoid, and diazepam.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2005.
It has been recently reported the presence in Valeriana of the flavone 6-methylapigenin and the flavanone glycoside hesperidin. The apigenin derivative is a ligand for the benzodiazepine binding site in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABA(A)) and has anxiolytic properties. Hesperidin has sedative and sleep-enhancing properties but is not a ligand for the benzodiazepine binding site. 6-Methylapigenin is able to potentiate the sleep-enhancing effect of hesperidin. In this work we demonstrate that this property is shared with various GABA(A) receptor ligands, among them the agonist diazepam, which was used to study the potentiation as measured in the hole board test. Isobolar analysis of the results showed the interaction being synergistic. We discarded pharmacokinetic effects or a direct action of hesperidin on the benzodiazepine binding site. A possible use of hesperidin properties to decrease the effective therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines is suggested.
NSAIDs are not recommended during pregnancy, particularly during the third trimester . While NSAIDs as a class are not direct teratogens , they may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and kidney ADRs in the fetus. Additionally, they are linked with premature birth  and miscarriage .   Aspirin, however, is used together with heparin in pregnant women with antiphospholipid antibodies .  Additionally, indomethacin is used in pregnancy to treat polyhydramnios by reducing fetal urine production via inhibiting fetal kidney blood flow.
A 15-day, randomized clinical trial published in 2011 evaluated Hoodia gordonii purified extract (HgPE) relative to placebo. Healthy, overweight women (n=64) received 1,110 milligram HgPE or placebo formulated in a yogurt drink one hour before breakfast and dinner. Menus otherwise were unchanged and portions were not controlled. HgPE was less well-tolerated than placebo due to episodes of nausea, vomiting, and skin sensations. Blood pressure, pulse, heart rate, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in the HgPE group. No significant effects on energy intakes or weight relative to placebo were demonstrated.